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VLP Production Service

VLP Production Service

As a leading global custom service provider, CD BioSciences has a sophisticated VLPlantTM platform and experienced scientists dedicated to providing the best quality and integrated solutions to our customers. We help our customers develop vaccines, nanomaterials and diagnostic reagents based on virus-like particles.

Overview of VLPs

Overview of VLPs

VLPs are virus-derived structures composed of one or more different molecules, and many viral structural proteins have the ability to self-assemble into VLPs with a morphological structure similar to that of natural viral particles. VLPs can be naturally occurring or self-assembled by the synthesis of individual expression of viral structural proteins. VLPs are immunogenic and biologically active because they retain the native antigenic conformation of the immunogenic protein and the repetitive structure of the original viral particles. In addition, VLPs lack genetic material, do not infect host cells, and have a good safety profile.

Expression System for VLP Production

Eukaryotic systems that have been used for the production of VLPs include baculovirus/insect cell (B/IC) systems, mammalian cell cultures and plants, in addition to cell-free expression systems for the production of VLPs. the choice of expression system affects the correct folding and post-translational modification of proteins, so the selection of the appropriate expression system is one of the main factors in the production of VLPs.

Expression System Advantages Disadvantages
Plant System
  • Low production cost
  • No endotoxin or mammalian pathogen contamination
  • Post-translational modification (PTM)
  • The operation is more complicated
Bacterial System
  • VLPs that can be used to produce a variety of viruses
  • The production cost is low, the growth rate is fast, and the protein expression level is high.
  • Lack of PTM and incomplete disulfide bond formation
Yeast System
  • More suitable for producing non-enveloped virus-like particles
  • Difficulty in constructing expression system and low yield
Insect System
  • Simpler, less expensive expression systems, faster growth and higher protein yields
  • Post-translational modification (PTM)
  • The N-glycosylation pattern is too simplistic
Mammalian and Avian Cells
  • Has complex and precise PTM
  • Low protein yield, high production cost and long expression time
  • May carry mammalian pathogens
Cell‑free System
  • Fast production, high protein yields, and no cellular contaminants
  • Optionally generate VLPs containing unnatural amino acids or toxic protein intermediates
  • High cost and limited scalability

Plant Systems

Plant expression systems have emerged as a strong competitor to other expression systems used for the production of VLPs. Plant expression systems have the advantages of being hardy, low cost of production (based on plant transient expression systems), and not contaminated by endotoxins or mammalian pathogens. Unlike prokaryotic expression systems, plants are able to perform PTM, such as glycosylation. In addition, plant produced VLPs are safe and effective and able to induce humoral and cellular immunity.

The pEAQ vector series: the easy and quick way to produce recombinant proteins in plants.The pEAQ vector series: the easy and quick way to produce recombinant proteins in plants. (Peyret H, et al., 2013)

Our Services

Process of Our Service

Process of Our Service

With its experienced scientists and advanced equipment, CD BioSciences, offers its global customers the service of producing VLPs from different plant platforms. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.


  1. Peyret H.; Lomonossoff GP. The pEAQ vector series: the easy and quick way to produce recombinant proteins in plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2013, 83:51-58.
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