Welcome to CD BioSciences
SUITE 206, 17 Ramsey Road, Shirley, NY 11967, USA info@cd-biosci.com 1-631-372-1052

Biophysical Methods-based VLP Characterization Service

Biophysical Methods-based VLP Characterization Service

CD BioSciences is a leading global company with advanced equipment and experienced staff. We are dedicated to helping our customers analyze biophysical parameters such as morphology, size and polydispersity of Virus-like particles (VLPs) on plant platform by biophysical methods.

Biophysical Methods for VLP Characterization

In addition to the detailed compositional analysis of VLPs constructed from plant platforms using biochemical methods, the biophysical parameters of VLPs are obtained by standard laboratory techniques (biophysical methods). Biophysical parameters of VLPs, such as morphology, size and polydispersity, contribute to the study of the efficacy and safety of VLPs vaccines.

Biophysical Methods for characterization of VLPs.Biophysical Methods for characterization of VLPs. (Nooraei S, et al., 2021)

Biophysical Methods for VLP Characterization
TEM (transmission electron microscopy) TEM is the most commonly used technique for visualizing VLPs and measuring their size. However, errors in particle size can occur due to particle deformation during sample preparation.
Cryo-EM (Cryo-electron microscopy) Cryo-EM uses rapid freezing and insoluble analysis methods during sample preparation that do not result in deformation of VLP particles.
AFM (atomic force microscopy) AFM is a powerful technique for measuring the size and size distribution of VLPs even under ambient conditions. Advantages include the absence of sample preparation and the ability to image individual VLP particles.
DLS (dynamic light scattering) DLS is a non-invasive technique that allows the measurement of heterogeneous samples with a wide size distribution, providing short-term measurements.
AF4-MALS (multi-angle light scattering)
ESDMA (electrospray differential analysis)
AF4-MALS and ESDMA are methods for rapid characterization and quantification of the distribution of multimodal VLPs. Both techniques can detect subtle changes in the size of the internal packing distribution of nucleic acids, other features and the chimeric composition of the VLP surface.
HPSEC (high-performance size exclusion chromatography) In addition to protein separation, HPSEC is also used for molecular weight determination and purity identification of unknowns.
CD (Circular dichroism)
UV (UV spectroscopy)
CD and UV are used to analyze secondary structures.

Our Services

CD BioSciences offers almost all biophysical methods for the characterization of VLPs constructed for plant platforms, thus helping customers to analyze the morphology, size and secondary structure of VLPs, etc. We are committed to providing fast, high quality services at competitive prices to our customers worldwide. You can choose the biophysical method for the characterization of VLPs that suits your needs. We also offer biochemical and biological methods for characterization of VLPs, which you can learn more about by following the link. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details and we will respond promptly.

Analysis Methods
Morphology EM, Cryo-EM, AFM
Size Determination EM, Cryo-EM, AFM DLS, AF4-MAL, ESDMA, HPSEC
Secondary Structure UV, CD

Why Choose CD BioSciences


Experienced: We have long provided global clients with a variety of biochemical, biophysical and biological methods to characterize VLPs constructed on plant platforms. In turn, help customers realize the development of vaccines, nanomaterials and diagnostic reagents based on VLPs.

Advanced Equipment

Advanced Equipment: Our laboratory is equipped with the latest and most advanced instrumentation to perform the characterization of VLPs with almost laboratory methods to suit your needs.


Customer-First: From the inquiry to the delivery of the results, we will respond to your messages in a timely manner, keep in touch with you all the time, and provide you with the best experimental plan.


  1. Nooraei, S.; et al., Virus-like particles: preparation, immunogenicity and their roles as nanovaccines and drug nanocarriers. J Nanobiotechnology. 2021, 25:19-59.
For Research Use Only.

Online Inquiry