S. aureus Vaccine Development
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, is a representative of Gram-positive bacteria. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, coupled with the significant severity of S. aureus infections, has led to frequent antibiotic use, leading to increased resistance rates.
The mechanism of S. aureus infection cells. (Zhou K, et al., 2018)
Harm of S. aureus to Human Beings
S. aureus is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in human disease, causing abscesses, lung infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. S. aureus carries between 20%-30% in healthy individuals and is present in the normal skin microbiota and has become a problem in health facilities and community settings.
Harm of S. aureus to Animal Husbandry
As an important zoonotic disease, bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus causes many economic losses in animal husbandry, including decreased milk production and quality, slaughter and increased mortality. Subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus accounts for 30% of bovine mastitis. In addition, the presence of S. aureus is a public health concern throughout the food chain.
S. aureus Vaccine
The threat posed by bacteria to the public is increasing due to the emergence of increasingly resistant antibiotics, such as MRSA, and there is an urgent need to develop non-antibiotic therapies to treat bacterial infections. Current treatments for S. aureus infections include novel antibiotic strategies, phage therapy, and monoclonal antibody therapy.
In addition, there is an urgent need to develop novel vaccines that can effectively elicit cellular and humoral immune responses.
Methods of targeting S. aureus. (Clegg J, et al., 2021)
- Recombinant Vaccine
At present, the most research on the development of S. aureus vaccines is the recombinant vaccine developed using its recombinant protein or polysaccharide antigen. The choice of which antigen or combination of antigens to use is the most important issue in the development of such vaccines, and the use of S. aureus surface antigens or secreted toxins is often considered for vaccine development.
- Live Attenuated Vaccine
Although the use of chemically or physically inactivated or live attenuated bacteria as a vaccine platform can elicit an immune response, unlike subunit vaccines, live attenuated vaccines carry the risk of reversion, which can lead to serious adverse events.
- Nucleic Acid Vaccine
Nucleic acid vaccines deliver antigens encoded as DNA or messenger RNA to cells, which are then transcribed and/or translated into proteins. Furthermore, DNA vaccines consisting of plasmids encoding antigens are another promising nucleic acid-based vaccine platform for S. aureus.
- VLP Vaccine
The particulate nature and multivalent structure of virus-like particles render them capable of eliciting a robust immune response in the body and make them effective scaffolds for the display of heterologous antigens in a highly immunogenic form. Peptide-based vaccines are often poorly immunogenic, and introduction of peptides onto the surface of VLPs elicits high titers and durable antibody responses. Therefore, the introduction of peptide antigens from S. aureus into the VLP vaccine production platform can develop an effective vaccine against S. aureus.
How We Can Help
As an expert in building VLPs from VLPlantTM platform, CD BioSciences uses its expertise to help our clients develop S. aureus vaccines. We are good at customizing our services according to the needs of our clients. Please contact us if you are interested.
Quote and Ordering
- Zhou K.; et al., A review on nanosystems as an effective approach against infections of Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018, 13:7333-7347.
- Clegg J.; et al., Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine Research and Development: The Past, Present and Future, Including Novel Therapeutic Strategies. Front Immunol. 2021, 12:1-19.