Bacterial Vaccine Development
Infectious diseases can be classified according to their pathogens: bacteria, viruses and parasites. Bacterial infections are common in all eukaryotes, and the co-evolution of bacteria with the host allows bacteria to use virulence strategies to overcome antimicrobial processes. With the widespread use of antibiotics, the number of drug-resistant bacteria has gradually increased, and the development of bacterial vaccines is imminent. Vaccines prepared from bacteria or their products can induce active immunity.
|Staphylococcus aureus||Abscesses, lung infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis (CF)|
|Salmonella typhi||Typhoid fever|
Classification of Bacterial Vaccines
Bacterial vaccines can consist of whole bacteria, capsular polysaccharides, toxoids, or proteins isolated and purified from bacteria.
Bacterial structures recognized by host immune responses. (Giesker, K, et al., 2014)
- Toxoid Vaccine
Toxoid, also known as force reducing toxin, denatured toxin. Refers to some toxins that have been denatured or chemically modified to lose their original toxicity and still retain their immunogenicity. Toxoids are disease-causing exotoxins produced by bacteria, not the bacteria themselves. Toxoid vaccines induce the body to produce antibodies that neutralize bacterial toxins to protect the body from bacteria.
- Subunit Vaccine/Polysaccharide Vaccine
Unlike toxoid vaccines, subunit vaccines generally contain only a single pathogenic antigen and elicit a weaker immune response.
- Conjugate Vaccine
The development of conjugate vaccines is accomplished by adding a protein to the capsular polysaccharide, which can address the problem of delayed T-independent immune response and improve immune responses.
- Inactivated Vaccine
Bacterial inactivated vaccines are developed by inactivating bacteria using chemical, heat or radiation therapy.
- Live Attenuated Vaccine
Live attenuated vaccines can be developed by targeting mutations in genes associated with bacterial virulence, eliciting robust immune responses that persist for long periods of time.
- Recombinant Vaccine
Recombinant vaccines can be produced by using live attenuated bacteria as carriers, and have the characteristics of safety, high efficiency, and better characteristics, and can provide vaccines with broader defenses against various serotypes/serogroups of bacteria.
- VLP Vaccine
The particulate nature and multivalent structure of virus-like particles render them capable of eliciting a robust immune response in the body and make them effective scaffolds for the display of heterologous antigens in a highly immunogenic form. Peptide-based vaccines are often poorly immunogenic, and introduction of peptides onto the surface of VLPs elicits high titers and durable antibody responses.
How We Can HelpAs a global leader in building VLPs and vaccine services from VLPlantTM platform, CD BioSciences leverages its expertise to help our clients develop bacterial vaccines. We are good at tailoring our services to the needs of our clients. Please contact us if you are interested.
Our capabilities include but are not limited to:
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- Giesker, K.; Hensel, M. Bacterial Vaccines. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. 2014, 3:1-7.