Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccination in the 18th century was the birth of the concept of vaccines, and since then, vaccines have become the most effective tool for saving millions of lives around the world each year, marking an important turning point in the fight against infectious diseases.
Classification of Vaccine
Vaccination is known to be by far the most effective and cost-effective intervention to prevent infection by pathogens, and vaccination is an effective way to stimulate immune memory against the effects of infection. Vaccines not only protect us from disease, but also prevent the further spread of pathogens. Vaccines are classified in many ways, among which vaccines can be divided into viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines and parasite vaccines according to the type of pathogens.
- Viral Vaccine
Viral vaccines are autoimmune preparations used to prevent viral diseases and are mainly made by methods such as artificial attenuation, inactivation or genetic recombination technology.
- Bacterial Vaccine
Bacterial vaccines can consist of whole bacteria, capsular polysaccharides, toxoids, or proteins isolated and purified from bacteria.
An ideal vaccine developed should not only show a consistent safety profile in all populations, be immunogenic to stimulate the immune system to generate sustained immunity, but also be stable and cost-effective. Routes of vaccine administration include intramuscular, subcutaneous, cutaneous or mucosal delivery.
Currently developed vaccines include live vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines, VLP vaccines, etc.
- Development of Live Attenuated Vaccines
The development of viral live attenuated vaccines is prepared by in vitro culture, while bacterial live attenuated vaccines are developed by targeting genetic mutations associated with bacterial virulence. Live attenuated vaccines can cause the body to produce an immune response, but the safety is low.
- Development of Inactivated Vaccines
Methods of developing inactivated vaccines for viruses or bacteria include chemicals such as formaldehyde, heat or radiation therapy. Inactivated vaccines are safer and more stable than live vaccines.
- Development of Recombinant Vaccines
The development of recombinant vaccines has benefited from advances in biotechnology, often developing the most important antigenic subunits of the virus into vaccines that can provide a wider range of defenses against bacteria of various serotypes/serogroups.
- Development of VLP Vaccines
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled from viral antigens and have no viral genome. Because the immunogenic epitopes displayed on the surface of VLPs are similar in size, shape, and repeating arrangement to natural viruses, they are effective scaffolds for the display of heterologous antigens, in addition to their ability to elicit a strong immune response in vivo.
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